Draconian coalition air raids and Islamic State's tactics have turned Syria's Raqqa into a wasteland.
A decade later, Saddam remains an important symbol to many disillusioned Sunni Arabs.
Even if Mosul falls, disputes between the Shi'a, Sunni and Kurdish political and military factions will lead to Islamic State's return.
The war for Iraq and Syria will change the Greater Middle East.
No side will emerge untainted by the harrowing violence in the streets of Aleppo.
The violence of Trumpism is the symptom of a wider global crisis.